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Release of six up-to-date Consensus on Science and Treatment Recommendations


ILCOR is pleased to announce its initial effort in its new continuous evidence evaluation (CEE) process with the release of six up to date Consensus on Science and Treatment Recommendations (CoSTR). You can download these six CoSTR documents by clicking on the links in the list below.

ILCOR continuous evidence evaluation process will result in web publications of Consensus on Science with Treatment Recommendations (COSTR) at this site. Each COSTR will include the original question that was searched and a value and preference statement as well as a list of knowledge gaps. Each COSTR includes an independent citation such that it can be cited consistently. Some CoSTRs are labeled "draft" in order for a CoSTR summary article to be published later. If you have any questions, concerns or comments regarding any of these CoSTRs, please contact us by email at

August 9, 2017 COSTR Posting:

Attribution, Registration and Publication

  • Systematic Review completed by Knowledge Synthesis Unit at St Michael’s Hospital under the direction of Andrea Tricco (
  • ILCOR Task Force Acknowledgement: Basic Life Support and Pediatrics
  • Link to the systematic review publication PMID: 28583860
  • PROSPERO: CRD420016047811
  • COSTR citation is unique to each COSTR and included in the posting.

CPR: Compression to Ventilation PICOST

The PICOST (Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome, Study Designs and Timeframe)

Population: Patients of all ages (i.e., neonates, children, adults) with cardiac arrest from any cause and across all settings (in-hospital and out of-hospital). Studies that included animals were not eligible. Intervention: All manual CPR methods including Compression-only CPR (CO-CPR), Continuous Compression CPR (CC-CPR), and CPR with different compression-to-ventilation ratios. CO-CPR included compression with no ventilations, while CC-CPR included compression with asynchronous ventilations or minimally-interrupted cardiac resuscitation (MICR) Studies that mentioned the use of a mechanical device during CPR were only considered if the same device was used across all relevant intervention arms and would therefore not confound the observed effect.

Comparators: Studies had to compare at least two different CPR methods from the eligible interventions; studies without a comparator were excluded.

Outcomes: The primary outcome was favorable neurological outcomes, measured by cerebral performance or a modified Rankin Score. Secondary outcomes were survival, ROSC, and quality of life.

Study designs: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised studies (non-randomised controlled trials, interrupted time series, controlled before-and-after studies, cohort studies) were eligible for inclusion. Study designs without a comparator group (e.g., case series, cross-sectional studies), reviews, and pooled analyses were excluded.

Timeframe: Published studies in English searched on January 15, 2016